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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) – Symptoms and causes

Overview Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder common among women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS may have infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods or excess male hormone (androgen) levels. The ovaries may develop numerous small collections of fluid (follicles) and fail to regularly release eggs.

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Polycystic ovary syndrome – Genetics Home Reference – NIH

Polycystic ovary syndrome is a condition that affects women in their child-bearing years and alters the levels of multiple hormones, resulting in problems affecting many body systems. Most women with polycystic ovary syndrome produce excess male sex hormones (androgens), a condition called hyperandrogenism

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Polycystic ovary syndrome | Womenshealth.gov

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a health problem that affects 1 in 10 women of childbearing age. Women with PCOS have a hormonal imbalance and metabolism problems that may affect their overall health and appearance. PCOS is also a common and treatable cause of infertility.

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Polycystic ovary syndrome – Wikipedia

Polycystic ovary syndromeSynonymsHyperandrogenic anovulation (HA),[1] SteinLeventhal syndrome[2]A polycystic ovary shown on an ultrasound image.SpecialtyGynecologySymptomsIrregular menstrual periods, heavy periods, excess hair, acne, pelvic pain, difficulty getting pregnant, patches of thick, darker, velvety skin[3]ComplicationsType 2 diabetes, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, heart disease, mood disorders, endometrial cancer[4]DurationLong term[5]CausesGenetic and environmental factors[6][7]Risk factorsObesity, not enough exercise, family history[8]Diagnostic methodBased on no ovulation, high androgen levels, ovarian cysts[4]Differential diagnosisAdrenal hyperplasia, hypothyroidism, high blood levels of prolactin[9]TreatmentWeight loss, exercise[10][11]MedicationBirth control pills, metformin, anti-androgens[12]Frequency2% to 20% of women of childbearing age[8][13] Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a set of symptoms due to elevated androgens (male hormones) in females.[4][14] Signs and symptoms of PCOS include irregular or no menstrual periods, heavy periods, excess body and facial hair, acne, pelvic pain, difficulty getting pregnant, and patches of thick, darker, velvety skin.[3] Associated conditions include type 2 diabetes, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, heart disease, mood disorders, and endometrial cancer.[4] PCOS is due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors.[6][7][15] Risk factors include obesity, not enough physical exercise, and a family history of someone with the condition.[8] Diagnosis is based on two of the following three findings: no ovulation, high androgen levels, and ovarian cysts.[4] Cysts may be detectable by ultrasound.[9] Other conditions that produce similar symptoms include adrenal hyperplasia, hypothyroidism, and high blood levels of prolactin.[9] PCOS has no cure.[5] Treatment may involve lifestyle changes such as weight loss and exercise.[10][11] Birth control pills may help with improving the regularity of periods, excess hair growth, and acne.[12] Metformin and anti-androgens may also help.[12] Other typical acne treatments and hair removal techniques may be used.[12] Efforts to improve fertility include weight loss, clomiphene, or metformin.[16] In vitro fertilization is used by some in whom other measures are not effective.[16] PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder among women between the ages of 18 and 44.[17] It affects approximately 2% to 20% of this age group depending on how it is defined.[8][13] It is one of the leading causes of poor fertility.[4] The earliest known description of what is now recognized as PCOS dates from 1721 in Italy.[18] Common signs and symptoms of PCOS include the following: Asians affected by PCOS are less likely to develop hirsutism than those of other ethnic backgrounds.[22] PCOS is a heterogeneous disorder of uncertain cause.[23][24] There is some evidence that it is a genetic disease. Such evidence includes the familial clustering of cases, greater concordance in monozygotic compared with dizygotic twins and heritability of endocrine and metabolic features of PCOS.[7][23][24] There is some evidence that exposure to higher than typical levels of androgens in utero increases the risk of developing PCOS in later life.[25] The genetic component appears to be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion with high genetic penetrance but variable expressivity in females; this means that each child has a 50% chance of inheriting the predisposing genetic variant(s) from a parent, and, if a daughter receives the variant(s), the daughter will have the disease to some extent.[24][26][27][28] The genetic variant(s) can be inherited from either the father or the mother, and can be passed along to both sons (who may be asymptomatic carriers or may have symptoms such as early baldness and/or excessive hair) and daughters, who will show signs of PCOS.[26][28] The phenotype appears to manifest itself at least partially via heightened androgen levels secreted by ovarian follicle theca cells from women with the allele.[27] The exact gene affected has not yet been identified.[7][24][29] In rare instances, single-gene mutations can give rise to the phenotype of the syndrome.[30] Current understanding of the pathogenesis of the syndrome suggests, however, that it is a complex multigenic disorder.[31] The severity of PCOS symptoms appears to be largely determined by factors such as obesity.[7][17][32] PCOS has some aspects of a metabolic disorder, since its symptoms are partly reversible. Even though considered as a gynecological problem, PCOS consists of 28 clinical symptoms

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Hysterectomy: Purpose, Procedure, Risks, Recovery

In this Article In this Article In this Article A hysterectomy is an operation to remove a woman's uterus. A woman may have a hysterectomy for different reasons, including: Hysterectomy for noncancerous reasons is usually considered only after all other treatment approaches have been tried without success. Depending on the reason for the hysterectomy, a surgeon may choose to remove all or only part of the uterus.

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Hysterectomy: Purpose, Procedure, and Risks

A hysterectomy is a surgical procedure to remove a womans uterus. The uterus, also known as the womb, is where a baby grows when a woman is pregnant. The uterine lining is the source of menstrual blood.

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Hysterectomy Recovery, Side Effects, Complications & Risks

What is a hysterectomy? A hysterectomy is a surgical procedure whereby the uterus (womb) is removed.

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Hysterectomy | Womenshealth.gov

A hysterectomy is a surgery to remove a woman's uterus (also known as the womb). The uterus is where a baby grows when a woman is pregnant

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Hysterectomy: Learn About Complications and Side Effects

Hysterectomy Preparation Prior to considering a hysterectomy, your doctor should review both the attendant risks and benefits if the procedure, and discuss any appropriate alternative treatment options. A thorough physical examination, including blood tests, is necessary prior to surgery. In some cases, imaging studies (such as ultrasound, CT, or MRI scans) will be carried out prior to the procedure

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Fertility Problems and Fertility Treatments for Women

Research shows that fertility issues are relatively common among both men and women. Even after a year of trying, around fifteen percent of couples do not achieve successful conception after one year. Around one-third of those that are unsuccessful in the first year will be able to conceive after a year, leaving fully one in […]

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How Do I Explain Surrogacy to my Family?

Understanding Surrogacy - What Is Surrogacy?Surrogacy is the act of carrying a child that will not be considered one's own after birth. It is a process that is in service of individuals or couples which are unable to have children safely but want to have them. It is through the good work of Surrogate Mothers […]

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Miscarriage Sympathy Card Messages

I have regretted not sending a miscarriage sympathy card on several occasions. It can seem overwhelming to know what to say

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Amniocentesis – American Pregnancy Association

Amniocentesis is a diagnostic test that may be recommended by yourhealth care provider following an abnormal triple test result. Inheritedor genetic concerns lead some parents to choose amniocentesis to determineif specific genetic disorders may be present in their baby. An ultrasound is used as a guide to determine a safe location forthe needle to enter the amniotic sac, so the fluid may be safely removed

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How an Instagram Account (of All Things) Is Helping Women Who’ve Miscarried – Greatist

One in 10 pregnancies ends in miscarriage. But even though it's a relatively common occurrenceand a traumatic oneit's rarely talked about. Because of that, women often feel shame, guilt, and isolation after losing their babies

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How one woman is changing the conversation around miscarriages – Fox News

15.5 thousand is the number of people following Dr.

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‘For 10 minutes I was somebody’s mother’: A story of miscarriage and hope – KARE

Christina Anderson, TODAY , TEGNA 11:58 AM.

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‘For 10 minutes I was somebody’s mother’: One story of miscarriage and hope – Today.com

share pin email Ariel Levy knew from the time she was little that she wanted a life full of adventures, and that by pursuing something she loved writing she could go to new places and explore new worlds.

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10 Celebrities Who Opened Up About Their Miscarriages – StyleCaster

Miscarriage is a common thing that can happen to anyone, even celebrities. In fact, 10 percent of known pregnancies end in miscarriages, according to estimates by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the Mayo Center.

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Clomid and baby aspirin twins – Drugs used for treatment of male infertility – Hayati Magazine (blog)

Hayati Magazine (blog) Clomid and baby aspirin twins - Drugs used for treatment of male infertility Hayati Magazine (blog) Clomid pregnancy test times. a convinced pulled portaged call supports without that hair on scar the the vessels up such the sometimes ride Auroville for it the capability are inhibitors in australia rx. job from heals my no Beauty one pretty

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Most men in the US and Europe could be infertile by 2060, according to a new study – Quartz

Sperm count in men from North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand declined by 50-60% between 1973 and 2011, according to a new study from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Surprisingly, the study, which analyzed data on the sperm counts of 42,935 men, found no decline in sperm counts in men from Asia, Africa and South America, although there was limited data from these areas. Overall, this is a very disturbing report

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The Pulling of the Bulls – CattleNetwork.com

Some of you are probably familiar with the phrase The Running of the Bulls. This phrase has Spanish roots and has its origins from the need to transport cattle from fields in the country to the closest markets for sale. Over the years, producers tried to speed the process by hurrying and exciting the cattle to market and it actually became a competition.

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Leaf beetles: Even a tiny dose of pesticide will impair reproduction – Phys.Org

Dr. Thorben Mller is studying how pesticides affect leaf beetles.

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Embryo transfer for cattle reproduction program to start this month … – Business Mirror

DAVAO CITYThe government is slated to start the national reproduction of cattle this month to ensure the regular reproduction of the breeding stock and gradually wean the country away from imports, according to a private dairy industry leader. The reproduction would be done through embryo transfer, a process of implanting the embryo into the reproductive tract of female cattle, said Isidro Albano, the current president of the Dairy Confederation of the Philippines.

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What fishy findings mean for our reproduction – New Zealand Herald

Kiwi scientists have revealed how females in one species can influence which competing sperm make it to their eggs first - with possible implications for understanding our own reproduction system.

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Fussy fish use genetic compatibility to pick partners from afar – Phys.Org

Credit: University of Otago When salmon spawn, the sperm of competing males are in an all-or-nothing race to be the first to reach and fertilise the eggs.

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