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The role of autophagy in follicular development and atresia in rat granulosa cells

Objective: To investigate the involvement of autophagy in folliculogenesis and its correlation with apoptosis.Design: Animal model–based study.Setting: University medical center.Animal(s): Twenty-one day-old female Sprague-Dawley rats.Intervention(s): Ovaries obtained from established immature rat models primed with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) were used for the induction of follicular development and atresia. Granulosa cells isolated from developing follicles […]

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Attenuated oocyte fertilization and embryo development associated with altered growth factor/signal transduction induced by endometriotic peritoneal fluid

Objective: To investigate whether the embryotoxic effect of peritoneal fluid (PF) from infertile women with mild endometriosis on mouse oocytes and embryos is associated with changes in embryonic epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and their receptors.Design: Experimental animal study.Setting: University-based research laboratory.Animal(s): Adult ICR mice.Intervention(s): Peritoneal fluid was obtained from fertile women […]

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Immunologic behavior of human cysteine-rich secretory protein 1 (hCRISP1) in primates: prospects for immunocontraception

Objective: To evaluate the immunologic behavior of human cysteine-rich secretory protein 1 (hCRISP1), a human sperm epididymal protein involved in fertilization, to establish its immunocontraceptive potential.Design: In vivo study in a nonhuman primate model.Setting: Animal care facility of an academic research center.Animal(s): Adult (6- to 15-year-old) male and female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) distributed into […]

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Morphologic indicators predict the stage of chromatin condensation of human germinal vesicle oocytes recovered from stimulated cycles

Objective: To assess germinal vesicles (GV) recovered from stimulated cycles by means of morphometric and morphologic examination (using contrast-phase and image analysis) and chromatin configuration (using fluorescent DNA imaging), and to evaluate the relevance of morphometric and morphologic parameters as forecasters of chromatin status.Design: Experimental study.Setting: University-affiliated infertility clinic.Patient(s): One hundred and thirty-one GV oocytes […]

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Glial cell line–derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its receptors in human ovaries from fetuses, girls, and women

Objective: To investigate the expression of glial cell line–derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its receptors, GDNF alpha 1 (GFR-?1) and tyrosine kinase receptor for rearranged during transfection (RET), in human ovaries at the protein and mRNA levels.Design: Samples were prepared for immunohistochemical staining for GDNF, GFR-?1, and RET and in situ hybridization for the mRNA […]

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Metabolic programming of ovarian angiogenesis and folliculogenesis by maternal malnutrition during lactation

Objective: To evaluate whether maternal malnutrition during lactation programs ovarian folliculogenesis and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and its receptors KDR, Flt-1, and FGFR.Design: Experimental study.Setting: University-based research laboratory.Animal(s): Adult female rats from a urogenital research laboratory.Intervention(s): Six rat dams randomly assigned to the following groups: […]

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Endocannabinoid system regulates migration of endometrial stromal cells via cannabinoid receptor 1 through the activation of PI3K and ERK1/2 pathways

Objective: To evaluate the effects of the cannabinoid system on the regulation of endometrial stromal cell (ESCs) dynamic behavior.Design: ESC migration, electrical signal generated by K+ channels, and cytoskeletal-actin dynamics were evaluated in response to treatment with the synthetic endocannabinoid methanandamide. Selective agonists and antagonists were used to identify both the receptor and the biochemical […]

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Embryonic stem cell-like cells established by culture of adult ovarian cells in mice

Objective: To suggest an alternative strategy for deriving histocompatible stems cells without undertaking genetic manipulation.Design: Prospective approach using an animal model.Setting: Stem cell and bioevaluation laboratory, Seoul National University.Animal(s): F1 (C57BL6 X DBA2) and outbred (ICR) mice.Intervention(s): Ovarian stroma cells of less than 40 ?m in diameter were subcultured with fibroblast monolayer, and colony-forming cells […]

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Effect of vitrification and beta-mercaptoethanol on reactive oxygen species activity and in vitro development of oocytes vitrified before or after in vitro fertilization

Objective: To investigate the effect of vitrification and beta-mercaptoethanol (?-ME) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity and in vitro development of oocytes vitrified before or after in vitro fertilization (IVF).Design: Randomized prospective study.Setting: University-based assisted reproductive technology laboratory.Animals(s): Abattoir-derived porcine ovaries.Interventions(s): Oocytes were vitrified either before or 4 hours after the end of IVF by […]

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Abnormally up-regulated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator expression and uterine fluid accumulation contribute to Chlamydia trachomatis-induced female infertility

Objective: To investigate whether abnormal expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cyclic adenosine 3?:5? monophosphate (cAMP)-activated chloride channel, and uterine fluid accumulation upon Chlamydia trachomatis infection may result in implantation failure, thus contributing to C. trachomatis-induced female infertility.Design: Experimental animal study.Setting: University laboratory animal service center.Animal(s): Adult female mice with regular estrous […]

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The effect of mifepristone on the peripheral blood natural killer cell’s cytotoxicity and expression of CD94/NKG2A and NKG2D during the implantation phase

Objective: To investigate the effect of mifepristone on peripheral blood natural killer cell's (pbNK) cytotoxicity and the expression of the inhibitory receptor CD94/NKG2A and the activated receptor NKG2D on pbNK cells.Design: In vitro study.Setting: University hospital and research laboratory.Patient(s): Twenty healthy nonpregnant women.Intervention(s): Detected the cytolytic activity of pbNK to K562 target cells; measured the […]

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A novel two-step strategy for in vitro culture of early-stage ovarian follicles in the mouse

Objective: To develop an in vitro strategy to support the growth of early-stage follicles and produce mature oocytes competent for fertilization.Design: Whole ovaries from 8-day-old mice were cultured for 4 days, and then secondary follicles were isolated and cultured for 12 days in a three-dimensional alginate or fibrin-alginate (FA) hydrogel matrix.Setting: University-affiliated laboratory.Animals: Mice.Intervention(s): None.Main […]

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Changes related to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling in leiomyomas: possible involvement of glycogen synthase kinase 3? and cyclin D2 in the pathophysiology

Objective: To identify changes in the expression and phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt protein kinases controlling survival and/or apoptosis of in vitro cell cultures of uterine leiomyomas.Design: Establishment of paired cell cultures of leiomyoma and myometrial specimens.Setting: Hadassah gynecology research laboratory.Patient(s): Eleven white premenopausal women, 35 to 50 years of age, undergoing hysterectomy because of […]

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Regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted originating from the epididymis differentially associates with viable and defective spermatozoa

Objective: To investigate the expression and cellular distribution of regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) in the male reproductive system.Design: Basic research.Setting: University academic medical center.Patient(s): Three adult male organ donors.Intervention(s): None.Main Outcome Measure(s): Reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), in situ hybridization, immunohistochemical staining, and immunofluorescence staining were used to examine the […]

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The selective progesterone receptor modulator CDB4124 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in uterine leiomyoma cells

Objective: To evaluate the effects of selective P receptor (PR) modulator CDB4124 on cell proliferation and apoptosis in cultured human uterine leiomyoma smooth muscle (LSM) cells and control myometrial smooth muscle (MSM) cells in matched uteri.Design: Laboratory research.Setting: Academic medical center.Patient(s): Premenopausal women (n = 12) undergoing hysterectomy for leiomyoma-related symptoms.Intervention(s): Treatment of primary LSM […]

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A selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor suppresses the growth of endometriosis with an antiangiogenic effect in a rat model

Objective: To analyze the antiangiogenic effects of the selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor parecoxib on the growth of endometrial implants in a rat model of peritoneal endometriosis.Design: Pharmacologic interventions in an experimental model of peritoneal endometriosis.Setting: Research laboratory in the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro.Animal(s): Twenty female Sprague-Dawley rats with experimentally induced endometriosis.Intervention(s): After implantation […]

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Estrogen and selective estrogen receptor modulators regulate vascular endothelial growth factor and soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 in human endometrial stromal cells

Objective: To determine whether 17?-estradiol (E2) and selective estrogen receptor modulators can regulate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and soluble VEGF receptor 1 (sVEGFR-1) as a VEGF antagonist in human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs).Design: In vitro experiment.Setting: Research laboratory at Kansai Medical University.Patient(s): Sixteen patients undergoing hysterectomy for benign reasons.Intervention(s): The ESCs were cultured with […]

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Treatment of endometriosis with a VEGF-targeted conditionally replicative adenovirus

Objective: To evaluate a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)–targeted gene therapy for the treatment of endometriosis.Design: Analysis of the VEGF gene expression and promoter activity in ectopic and eutopic endometrium. Evaluation of the specific replication and cell-killing effect of a VEGF-targeted adenovirus (Ad5VEGFE1) in endometriotic cells.Patient(s): Four patients who underwent hysterectomy for benign disease, 30 […]

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Mechanisms regulating invasiveness and growth of endometriosis lesions in rat experimental model and in humans

Objective: To compare the expression of MMP-2, TIMP-2, and TGF?2 mRNA in experimental and human endometriotic lesions and to assess the possibility of its cytokine regulation.Design: Experimental laboratory study.Setting: Medical center.Animals and Patient(s): Thirty female Wistar rats, 17 women with endometriosis, 11 healthy women.Intervention(s): Uterine transplants were attached to rat peritoneum via the surgical autotransplantation […]

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The variable expression of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor (LOX-1) and signs of autophagy and apoptosis in freshly harvested human granulosa cells depend on gonadotropin dose, age, and body weight

Objective: To extend our recent observations on lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor (LOX-1) expression in human granulosa cell cultures with freshly harvested granulosa cells.Design: Clinical research.Setting: Institute of Anatomy and Clinic for Reproductive Medicine.Patient(s): Women undergoing IVF therapy were classified by total FSH dose, age, and body mass index.Main Outcome Measure(s): Purified granulosa cells were […]

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Presence of the brain proteins cerebral cavernous malformation-2 and cerebral cavernous malformation-3 in rat testes and their potential role in experimental varicocele

Objective: To assess the distribution of cerebral cavernous malformation-2 (CCM2) and CCM3 proteins in a normal and experimentally induced varicocele model in rat testes.Design: Comparative and controlled study.Setting: University animal care and operation unit.Animal(s): Wistar male rats for experimental and control groups.Intervention(s): The control group underwent a sham operation. Rats in the experimental groups underwent […]

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Aberrant behavior of mouse embryo development after blastomere biopsy as observed through time-lapse cinematography

Objective: To analyze whether blastomere biopsy affects early embryonal growth as observed through time-lapse cinematography.Design: Comparative prospective study between embryos in which a blastomere was removed and embryos in which a blastomere was not removed.Setting: An experimental laboratory of the university.Main Outcome Measure(s): We calculated the time between blastocele formation and the end of hatching, […]

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Embryo vitrification affects the methylation of the H19/Igf2 differentially methylated domain and the expression of H19 and Igf2

Objective: To investigate the effects of embryo vitrification on the methylation status of the H19/Igf2 differentially methylated domain (DMD) and the expression of those genes.Design: Comparative and controlled study.Setting: A university-affiliated hospital.Animals: ICR female and male mice.Intervention(s): Day 14 fetuses that arose from copulation of male and female mice were taken as the control group. […]

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Vitamin D3 receptor is expressed in the endometrium of cycling mice throughout the estrous cycle

Objective: To investigate the expression and localization of vitamin D3 receptor (VDR) in reproductive organs of cycling mice.Design: Experimental animal study.Setting: Academic research center.Animal(s): Mature (8 to 12 weeks old) cycling female Balb/c mice.Intervention(s): Reproductive tissue, including endometrium, ovary, and fallopian tubes, were collected at each phase of estrous cycle to examine VDR expression.Main Outcome […]

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Functional studies of acid transporter in cultured rat epididymal cell

Objective: To explore the functional role of vacuolar H+-ATPase in the pH regulation of epididymal fluid and its effect on sperm motility.Design: Experimental study.Setting: Physiology laboratory in a university.Animal(s): Immature male Sprague-Dawley rats.Intervention(s): The H+-ATPase inhibitor was applied to the primary culture of epididymal cells.Main Outcome Measure(s): The intracellular luminal fluid pH and sperm percent […]

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