Infertility Symptoms, Causes (Men, Women), Treatments …

What causes infertility in women?

Women need functioning ovaries, fallopian tubes, and a uterus to get pregnant. Conditions affecting any one of these organs can contribute to female infertility. Some of these conditions are listed below and can be evaluated using a number of different tests.

A womans menstrual cycle is, on average, 28 days long. Day 1 is defined as the first day of full flow. Regular predictable periods that occur every 24 to 32 days likely reflect ovulation. A woman with irregular periods is likely not ovulating.

Ovulation can be predicted by using an ovulation predictor kit and can be confirmed by a blood test to check the womans progesterone level on day 21 of her menstrual cycle. Although several tests exist to evaluate a womans ovarian function, no single test is a perfect predictor of fertility. The most commonly used markers of ovarian function include follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) value on day 3 to 5 of the menstrual cycle, anti-mllerian hormone value (AMH), and antral follicle count (AFC) using a transvaginal ultrasound.

Disruptions in ovarian function may be caused by several conditions and warrants an evaluation by a doctor.

When a woman doesnt ovulate during a menstrual cycle, its called anovulation. Potential causes of anovulation include the following

Risk factors for blocked fallopian tubes (tubal occlusion) can include a history of pelvic infection, history of ruptured appendicitis, history of gonorrhea or chlamydia, known endometriosis, or a history of abdominal surgery.

Tubal evaluation may be performed using an X-ray that is called a hysterosalpingogram (HSG), or by chromopertubation (CP) in the operating room at time of laparoscopy, a surgical procedure in which a small incision is made and a viewing tube called a laparoscope is inserted.

Depending on a womans symptoms, the uterus may be evaluated by transvaginal ultrasound to look for fibroids or other anatomic abnormalities. If suspicion exists that the fibroids may be entering the endometrial cavity, a sonohystogram (SHG) or hysteroscopy (HSC) may be performed to further evaluate the uterine environment.

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