Archive for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome





Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) – Diagnosis and treatment …

Diagnosis There's no test to definitively diagnose PCOS. Your doctor is likely to start with a discussion of your medical history, including your menstrual periods and weight changes. A physical exam will include checking for signs of excess hair growth, insulin resistance and acne.

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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) – Symptoms and causes

Overview Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder common among women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS may have infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods or excess male hormone (androgen) levels. The ovaries may develop numerous small collections of fluid (follicles) and fail to regularly release eggs.

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Polycystic ovary syndrome – Genetics Home Reference – NIH

Polycystic ovary syndrome is a condition that affects women in their child-bearing years and alters the levels of multiple hormones, resulting in problems affecting many body systems. Most women with polycystic ovary syndrome produce excess male sex hormones (androgens), a condition called hyperandrogenism

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Polycystic ovary syndrome | Womenshealth.gov

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a health problem that affects 1 in 10 women of childbearing age. Women with PCOS have a hormonal imbalance and metabolism problems that may affect their overall health and appearance. PCOS is also a common and treatable cause of infertility.

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Polycystic ovary syndrome – Wikipedia

Polycystic ovary syndromeSynonymsHyperandrogenic anovulation (HA),[1] SteinLeventhal syndrome[2]A polycystic ovary shown on an ultrasound image.SpecialtyGynecologySymptomsIrregular menstrual periods, heavy periods, excess hair, acne, pelvic pain, difficulty getting pregnant, patches of thick, darker, velvety skin[3]ComplicationsType 2 diabetes, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, heart disease, mood disorders, endometrial cancer[4]DurationLong term[5]CausesGenetic and environmental factors[6][7]Risk factorsObesity, not enough exercise, family history[8]Diagnostic methodBased on no ovulation, high androgen levels, ovarian cysts[4]Differential diagnosisAdrenal hyperplasia, hypothyroidism, high blood levels of prolactin[9]TreatmentWeight loss, exercise[10][11]MedicationBirth control pills, metformin, anti-androgens[12]Frequency2% to 20% of women of childbearing age[8][13] Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a set of symptoms due to elevated androgens (male hormones) in females.[4][14] Signs and symptoms of PCOS include irregular or no menstrual periods, heavy periods, excess body and facial hair, acne, pelvic pain, difficulty getting pregnant, and patches of thick, darker, velvety skin.[3] Associated conditions include type 2 diabetes, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, heart disease, mood disorders, and endometrial cancer.[4] PCOS is due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors.[6][7][15] Risk factors include obesity, not enough physical exercise, and a family history of someone with the condition.[8] Diagnosis is based on two of the following three findings: no ovulation, high androgen levels, and ovarian cysts.[4] Cysts may be detectable by ultrasound.[9] Other conditions that produce similar symptoms include adrenal hyperplasia, hypothyroidism, and high blood levels of prolactin.[9] PCOS has no cure.[5] Treatment may involve lifestyle changes such as weight loss and exercise.[10][11] Birth control pills may help with improving the regularity of periods, excess hair growth, and acne.[12] Metformin and anti-androgens may also help.[12] Other typical acne treatments and hair removal techniques may be used.[12] Efforts to improve fertility include weight loss, clomiphene, or metformin.[16] In vitro fertilization is used by some in whom other measures are not effective.[16] PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder among women between the ages of 18 and 44.[17] It affects approximately 2% to 20% of this age group depending on how it is defined.[8][13] It is one of the leading causes of poor fertility.[4] The earliest known description of what is now recognized as PCOS dates from 1721 in Italy.[18] Common signs and symptoms of PCOS include the following: Asians affected by PCOS are less likely to develop hirsutism than those of other ethnic backgrounds.[22] PCOS is a heterogeneous disorder of uncertain cause.[23][24] There is some evidence that it is a genetic disease. Such evidence includes the familial clustering of cases, greater concordance in monozygotic compared with dizygotic twins and heritability of endocrine and metabolic features of PCOS.[7][23][24] There is some evidence that exposure to higher than typical levels of androgens in utero increases the risk of developing PCOS in later life.[25] The genetic component appears to be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion with high genetic penetrance but variable expressivity in females; this means that each child has a 50% chance of inheriting the predisposing genetic variant(s) from a parent, and, if a daughter receives the variant(s), the daughter will have the disease to some extent.[24][26][27][28] The genetic variant(s) can be inherited from either the father or the mother, and can be passed along to both sons (who may be asymptomatic carriers or may have symptoms such as early baldness and/or excessive hair) and daughters, who will show signs of PCOS.[26][28] The phenotype appears to manifest itself at least partially via heightened androgen levels secreted by ovarian follicle theca cells from women with the allele.[27] The exact gene affected has not yet been identified.[7][24][29] In rare instances, single-gene mutations can give rise to the phenotype of the syndrome.[30] Current understanding of the pathogenesis of the syndrome suggests, however, that it is a complex multigenic disorder.[31] The severity of PCOS symptoms appears to be largely determined by factors such as obesity.[7][17][32] PCOS has some aspects of a metabolic disorder, since its symptoms are partly reversible. Even though considered as a gynecological problem, PCOS consists of 28 clinical symptoms

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