Archive for Fertility News



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Transforming growth factor-?1 and its receptor soluble endoglin are altered in polycystic ovary syndrome during controlled ovarian stimulation

Objective: To evaluate the relationship between transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 and its receptor, soluble endoglin (sENG), in the serum and follicular fluid of women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) compared with that of non-PCOS normal ovulating women during controlled ovarian stimulation (COS).Design: Prospective case-control study.Setting: Academic-affiliated assisted reproductive technology unit.Patient(s): Fourteen PCOS and 14 matched […]

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Variability in protein quality used for embryo culture: embryotoxicity of the stabilizer octanoic acid

Objective: To screen human serum albumin (HSA) preparations for toxicity and investigate causes of variation.Design: Experimental laboratory study.Setting: University-based laboratory.Animal(s): FVB and CF1 mice crossed to create embryos used in experiments.Intervention(s): Mouse embryo assay performed with 5% or 15% HSA (100 mg/mL albumin) from three samples from three separate manufacturers (A, B, C).Main Outcome Measure(s): […]

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Fas ligand+ fallopian tube epithelium induces apoptosis in both Fas receptor+ T lymphocytes and endometrial cells

Objective: To establish whether human fallopian tube (FT) epithelium can induce apoptosis in T lymphocytes and endometrial cells.Design: Laboratory-based study.Setting: Hospital.Patient(s): Women undergoing abdominal hysterectomy for FT samples, and women volunteers with and without endometriosis for endometrial biopsies.Intervention(s): FT samples obtained at time of surgery performed in reproductive-aged women with normal menstrual cycles.Main Outcome Measure(s): […]

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Paracrine regulation of theca androgen production by granulosa cells in the ovary

Objective: To test whether and to what extent inhibin mediates Cyp17 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in theca cells (TCs) in response to FSH stimulation of granulosa cells (GCs).Design: Ex vivo and in vitro experimental study.Setting: University.Animal(s): Immature female Sprague Dawley rats.Intervention(s): Ovarian tissue explants and isolated theca cell preparations with or without GCs were treated with FSH, […]

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Constitutive and tumor necrosis factor-?-induced activation of nuclear factor-?B in adenomyosis and its inhibition by andrographolide

Objective: To investigate the action of nuclear factor (NF)-?B in adenomyosis and evaluate the potential therapeutic effect of andrographolide on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?-induced expression of NF-?B-mediated genes cyclooxygease-2 (COX-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tissue factor (TF) in adenomyotic stromal cells.Design: Laboratory study using human tissues.Setting: Academic hospital.Patient(s): Twenty-nine patients (cases) with histologically […]

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Peroxynitrite affects the cumulus cell defense of metaphase II mouse oocytes leading to disruption of the spindle structure in vitro

Objective: To demonstrate the effects of peroxynitrite (ONOO?) on metaphase II mouse oocyte spindle structure and chromosomal alignment in presence and absence of cumulus cells.Design: Experimental study.Setting: University-based research laboratory.Animal(s): Metaphase II mouse oocytes (n = 440).Intervention(s): Metaphase II mouse oocytes, with and without cumulus cells, were exposed to ONOO?, nitrite/nitrate, the final product of […]

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Antimüllerian hormone inhibits follicle-stimulating hormone-induced adenylyl cyclase activation, aromatase expression, and estradiol production in human granulosa-lutein cells

Objective: To investigate the effects of antimüllerian hormone (AMH) on basal and FSH-induced cytochrome P450 aromatase (aromatase) expression and E2 production in human granulosa-lutein (hGL) cells, and to elucidate the mechanism by which AMH exerts its effects.Design: Experimental study.Setting: Academic medical center for reproductive science.Patient(s): The hGL cells were obtained from consenting patients undergoing IVF […]

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Forks in the Road Along the Way

I have counted five forks on the road of infertility. Not everyone will come to each one. Some will set up camp at the sight of the first fork, some will travel a ways before setting up camp. These forks are as follows: acknowledging there may be a problem and getting tested; deciding whether or […]

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Pregnancy After Loss

When we experienced our chemical pregnancy a year and a half ago, we got varying reactions from people. Some tried to minimize the loss by referring to the tiny baby/babies as just cells or eggs, while others encouraged me to name them and think of them as children I have in heaven. Considering myself Pro-Life, […]

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New ARC Member: Santa Barbara Fertility Center – Dedication, Compassion, Hope

 ARC is excited and proud to present its newest ARC Network MemberSanta Barbara Fertility Center Welcome to Santa Barbara Fertility CenterDr. René Allen and the team at Santa Barbara Fertility Center are dedicated to bringing you the highest level of patient care combined with the most advanced reproductive technologies. We offer a full range of services […]

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Infertility Survivor’s Guilt

Perhaps like most people, when I first started down the journey of infertility, I saw everything through the lens of my own specific circumstances. I assumed that all people who were infertile were childless, and I didnt take very seriously those conditions which were mild compared to our own severe diagnosis. Of course, as I […]

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Resolving Childlessness

Counting my blessings: I think thats got to be the motto in life if we are to enjoy it. In the realm of infertility, there is a lot to which those who are unaffected by it are oblivious. How easily it can consume your life. How it can drain your energy, positive attitude, finances. How […]

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The Kiss1 system and polycystic ovary syndrome: lessons from physiology and putative pathophysiologic implications

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a highly prevalent heterogeneous disease characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism, and metabolic alterations. Women with PCOS commonly display dysregulated gonadotropin secretion with higher LH pulsatility and perturbed LH-FSH ratios, which likely contributes to the ovarian phenotype and might be indicative of disrupted GnRH secretory activity. Although the involvement of altered […]

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Changes in DNA fragmentation during sperm preparation for intracytoplasmic sperm injection over time

Objective: To compare the DNA fragmentation of semen samples established by terminal deoxynucleotide transferase–mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) after incubation in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and hyaluronic acid (HA) for different time periods.Design: Comparative prospective study.Setting: Center for reproductive medicine.Patient(s): Twenty-seven semen samples from infertile patients.Intervention(s): None.Methods: Semen analysis and DNA fragmentation assays (TUNEL) were performed. Two […]

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In vitro fertilization–intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcome in patients with a markedly high DNA fragmentation index (>50%)

Objective: To investigate differences in fertilization, clinical pregnancy, and miscarriage rates between men with a markedly high sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) (>50%) and those with low DFI (?15%) in couples matched by female partner age and ovarian reserve as determined by antimüllerian hormone (AMH) level.Design: Retrospective cohort study.Setting: University-affiliated fertility center.Patient(s): Men undergoing intracytoplasmic […]

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Single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis in men with idiopathic azoospermia or oligoasthenozoospermia syndrome

Objective: To identify copy number variations (CNVs) as a hint toward genes relevant for spermatogenesis and related to male factor infertility.Design: Analysis of genomic DNA with high resolution Illumina SNP arrays (HumanOmni1-Quad Bead Chip). Sanger sequencing of the CLCA4 gene in all patients of the study. Analysis of CLCA4 expression in various human tissue samples.Setting: […]

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Evaluation of diagnostic testis biopsy and the repetition of testicular sperm extraction surgeries in infertility patients

Objective: To evaluate the use of a diagnostic testis biopsy and a repetition of testicular sperm extraction (TESE) surgeries in azoospermic patients and its impact on the outcome of TESE.Design: Retrospective, case–control study.Setting: University IVF center and hospital.Patient(s): A total of 552 azoospermic patients undergoing TESE for intracytoplasmic injection.Intervention(s): At the time of the TESE, […]

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In vitro fertilization versus conversion to intrauterine insemination in the setting of three or fewer follicles: how should patients proceed when follicular response falls short of expectation?

Objective: To determine whether in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles with suboptimal response should be converted to intrauterine insemination (IUI) or proceed to oocyte retrieval (OR).Design: Retrospective cohort.Setting: Academic medical center.Patient(s): All patients initiating IVF from January 2004 through December 2011.Intervention(s): OR versus conversion to IUI.Main Outcome Measure(s): A total of 1,098 patients were identified whose IVF cycles […]

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In vitro fertilization with single euploid blastocyst transfer: a randomized controlled trial

Objective: To determine whether performing comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS) and transferring a single euploid blastocyst can result in an ongoing pregnancy rate that is equivalent to transferring two untested blastocysts while reducing the risk of multiple gestation.Design: Randomized, noninferiority trial.Setting: Academic center for reproductive medicine.Patient(s): Infertile couples (n = 205) with a female partner less […]

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Prolactin and proinflammatory cytokine expression at the fetomaternal interface in first trimester miscarriage

Objective: To investigate the expression of prolactin (PRL), PRL-receptor (PRL-R), and the TH1 cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interferon-? (IFN-?) at the maternofetal interface.Design: Case-control study.Setting: University hospital unit of gynecology and obstetrics and research laboratories.Patient(s): Women undergoing suction curettage for spontaneous miscarriage (study group) and voluntary termination of pregnancy (control group) […]

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Early beta-human chorionic gonadotropin trends in vanishing twin pregnancies

Objective: To describe the early ?-hCG trends in vanishing twins compared with normally progressing singleton and twin pregnancies.Design: Retrospective cohort study.Setting: University-based infertility clinic.Patient(s): Women undergoing fresh IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles between 1998 and 2010.Intervention(s): Early ?-hCG level increase in vanished twin pregnancies was compared with the level increase in normally progressing singleton and twin […]

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Pain in the upper anterior-lateral part of the thigh in women affected by endometriosis: study of sensitive neuropathy

Objective: To assess whether pain in the anterior-lateral part of the thigh in women affected by endometriosis is due to femoral nerve invasion by endometriotic implants.Design: Case-control study.Setting: Hospital.Patient(s): We enrolled 30 patients with endometriosis and leg pain in the anterior-lateral part of the thigh and 30 healthy women.Intervention(s): Skin biopsy and neurologic examination for […]

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Altered circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 and their inhibitors and effect of progesterone supplementation in women with endometriosis undergoing in vitro fertilization

Objective: To investigate differences in the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2 and 9 and their respective tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) in follicular fluid of women with endometriosis, to correlate the findings with IVF outcome, and to examine the therapeutic potential of progesterone supplementation in restoring the fine balance between MMPs and TIMPs.Design: Prospective case-control clinical […]

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Expression of adiponectin, leptin, and their receptors in ovarian endometrioma

Objective: To evaluate the expression of leptin, leptin receptor (ObR), adiponectin, and adiponectin receptor (AdipoR) in ovarian endometriomas compared with normal endometrium, and to analyze relationships among adipokines and their receptors.Design: Experimental study.Setting: A clinic for the treatment of endometriosis and basic research laboratories.Patient(s): Forty-four women with endometriosis and 42 age-matched women with no laparoscopic […]

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Effect of maternal chronic disease on obstetric complications in twin pregnancies in a United States cohort

Objective: To evaluate the effect of maternal chronic disease on obstetric complications among twin pregnancies.Design: Multicenter, retrospective, observational study.Setting: Clinical centers (19 hospitals).Patient(s): Twin pregnancies (n = 4,821) delivered ?23 weeks of gestation and classified by maternal chronic disease (either none or any of the following: asthma, depression, hypertension, diabetes, and heart, thyroid, gastrointestinal or […]

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